Ontology is the science of the being. The ontology studies the supreme kinds(genres) or supreme categories of the entities. It studies also the regions of the entitative world , and the categorial factory of the entitative world.
The metaphysic is different, because it devotes itself to the study of privileged beings: they are for example the Absolute Spirit, the mónade, four causes ...; the whole world is subordinated before these privileged beings. The metaphysic is also called "special metaphysic"
Edmund Husserl says that there exists a formal ontology, which studies pure forms of essence. Of this ontology, the regional ontologies depend; these ontologies are based on the principles that the fundamental ontology provides.
Acording to Husserl,the ontology is first, because it is previous to the positive sciences. The ontology is a fundamental discipline of the knowledge of the entity as entity. The first thing is, the conditions of the possibility of the patent entity.
As opposed alproyecto Husserl, Nicolai Hartmann to the ontology defined as a body of science as body. The ontology is wisdom first, in the sense that investigates the first foundations of entia. According to Hartmann, the first on knowledge of the body are the principles that underlie the structure last delente.La precedes ontology not science but that presupposes.
- Gabriel Marcel, "The mystery of Being
- Jean Paul Sartre, "Being and Nothingness"
- Obdulio Banda, "The ontological status of essence"