Ontology as science Edit
Ontology is the science of being, with reference to its abstract and universal conditions, as distinguished from the science of determined or concrete being;the science of the conceptions and relations which are necessarily implied as true of every kind of being. Ontology is the search into what categories of things are in the world, and what relations these things bear to one another. One ontologic problem is the nature of essence.
Ontology is the science of the being. The ontology studies the supreme kinds(genres) or supreme categories of the entities. It studies also the regions of the entitative world , and the categorial factory of the entitative world.
The metaphysic is different, because it devotes itself to the study of privileged beings: they are for example the Absolute spirit, the mónade, four causes ...; the whole world is subordinated before these privileged beings. The metaphysic is also called "special metaphysic"
In 1647, Johann Clauberg published "Elementa philosophiae sive ontosophia"; Clauberg, in this work, definied to the ontology as " the science and the first philosophy that studies the being as being "; and hereinafter he declares that this science " first, supreme, transnatural, philosophical, divine, universal ", etc., is the one that has been called "Ontosophy" by Lobkowitz and "Ontology" by Calovius.
Edmund Husserl says that there exists a formal ontology, which studies pure forms of essence. Of this ontology, the regional ontologies depend; these ontologies are based on the principles that the fundamental ontology provides.
Acording to Husserl,the ontology is first, because it is previous to the positive sciences. The ontology is a fundamental discipline of the knowledge of the entity as entity. The first thing is, the conditions of the possibility of the patent entity.
As opposed at Husserl's thesis, Nicolai Hartmann thinks to the ontology defined as a body of science as body. The ontology is wisdom first, in the sense that investigates the first foundations of entia. According to Hartmann, the first on knowledge of the body are the principles that underlie the structure last delente.La precedes ontology not science but that presupposes.
Obdulio Banda, reduces the spheres of the being before the requirements that the theory of the reflection (reflex) establishes: according to Banda, it is the binomial mind - extra-mental reality, that one that decides the statute or condition of the ontological spheres. Because of it, he denies that exists a kingdom of the ideal being with uncompromising categories to the above-mentioned binomial.
Ontological status of eidos Edit
Edmund Husserl supposed to be the essence is the autarchic an individual and that is what he is. Husserl meant by this, that the essence of determining what is fact. Husserl believed that the essence is independent of the fact, that is unspatial and timeless.
According to the phenomenology, the essences are ideal units of meaning or "meanings", which are given to the intentional conscience when the intentional conscience proceeds to describe the given thing.The essence is timeless and aprioric. On the contrary, the fact, is temporary and aposterioric. The essence is universal, and possesses ideality.
But Husserl, due to its phenomenology, he thought that the essence is the deliberate purpose of pure consciousness: believed that the essence is not independent of pure consciousness: that the essence is what is in front of the pure conscience ..
"Elementa philosophiae sive ontosophia" (Johann Clauberg), "L'Etre et le néant" (Jean Paul Sartre), "Sein und Zeit" (Martin Heidegger), "Ideas pertaining to a pure Phenomenology and to a phenomenological philosophy", "Formal and transcendental logic" (Edmund Husserl), "Ontological status of essence" (Obdulio Banda), "Toward the ontologic-categorial analysis of logician" (Obdulio Banda), "Introduction a l'ontologie" (Louis Lavelle), "Ontologie" (Nicolai Hartmann), "Kritik der reinen Vernunft" (Immanuel Kant), "Le mystère de l'être" (Gabriel Marcel).
- Thomas Aquinas, "Selected philosophycal writings, Oxford University Press, 2,008; ISBN-10: 0199540276
- G.W. Hegel, "Science of logic", Routledge, 2,004; ISBN-10: 041529584X
- Edmund Husserl, "Logical investigations", Vol 1, Routledge, 2,001, ISBN-10: 041524i898
- Jean Paul Sartre, "Being and nothingness: a phenomenological essay on ontology", Washington Square Press, 1,993. ISBN-10: 0671867806
- Nicolai Hartmann, "Zur Grundlegung der Ontologie. Ontologie I",Gruyter, 2,003; isbn-10: 0671967806
- Jeff Mitsecherling, "Roman Ingarden's ontology and aesthetics", University of Ottawa Press, 1,997; ISBN-10: 0776604252
- Roman Ingarden, "Ontology", Ohio University Press, 1,989; ISBN-10: 0821405550
- Obdulio Banda, "Ontological status of essence", IIPCIAL, Lima,2,007 ISBN: 978-9972-9982-1-8
See also Edit
- Essence and existence 
- Ontological status of essence: 
- Gabriel Marcel