The empirism/rationalism false dichotomy is the claim that empirism (the idea that knowledge comes from experience) and rationalism (the idea that knowledge comes from reasoning) are somehow opposites. The false dichotomy, frequently used in computationalist rhetorics, ignores the fact that experience is necessary to disprove false theories while reasoning gives theories the logical consistency that makes them possible to disprove, as shown by Karl Popper. As shown in brain, reasoning itself emerges spontaneously from experience patterns of disproving, whether by pruning of a quantum superposition or simply connectionism. The false dichotomy have caused a widespread misconception of "rationalism" simply being a negation or even discrediting of "empirism" which, in combination with ultra-Darwinist views of the mind being a tool for reproductive success without impetus towards objectivity, have caused the meaning of the word "rationalism" to slip into something that should more properly be referred to as dogmaticism, the claim that minds are collections of fixed irrational convictions and that true knowledge of what reality really is is impossible. The serious problem with claiming that such dogmaticism is a scientific fact is that dogmaticism, if true, would rule out the possibility of science. That is comparable to pointing at a paper where the text is "Everything that is written on this paper is a lie" while saying that the paper tells the truth.

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