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Free Will

In respect of my rising out of my chair, natural causes excise of it no determining influence whatsoever. It does indeed follow upon them, but without a rising out of them; and accordingly, in respect of causality though not of time, must be entitled an absolutely first beginning of a series of appearances(k414)


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The common presupposition of the absolute reality of appearances here manifests its injurious influence, to the confounding of reason. For if appearances are things-in-themselves, freedom cannot be upheld(k466)

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As regards this empirical character there is no freedom; and yet it is only in the light of this character that man can be studied(k474)

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The physical inclines without necessitating(LE179)

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The freedom to will contrary to all the impressions which may come from the understanding would destroy true liberty, reason with it, and bring us down below the level of the beasts(LE180)

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The will is free in so far as we are active, i.e. determined by distinct ideas; God alone, who has only distinct ideas, is perfectly free(pl192)

All existential propositions and all causal connections are contingent, and consequently, though volitions have invariable causes, they do not follow necessarily from those causes(pl192)

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An act is free insofar as the agent's motives or drives are a link in its causal chain. Those motives or drives may themselves be as rigidly determined as you please(tt11)